Medical battery can be defined as an intentional act on the part of the caregiver to fail to respect a patient's advance directive. For example, if Dr. X removed the patient’s kidney without their consent, the patient may be better off physically, but suffer from emotional pain. Battery definitions, terms, & terminology Anode: The definition for the anode is the electrode at which an oxidation reaction occurs. Battery definition: Batteries are small devices that provide the power for electrical items such as torches... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Medical malpractice The unauthorised touching of another person. In a medical battery claim, there is generally no need to prove injury or negligence. Can't find your category? Don S. Smith* M . Library, Employment All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This may involve compensation for any physical damages, including: Even though the actual injury is not required for medical battery in healthcare situations, some damages need to be apparent to recover a battery claim. Working with a lawyer specializing in medical battery cases can help you understand your state laws and options for recovery. This is medical malpractice because Dr. X did not intend to leave the tool. Definition. Actual, "A medical malpractice claim based on an allegation that the medical care or surgery was performed without consent can be pursued under theories of medical battery or negligence," he explains. 3. In fact, battery is only an issue in very limited circumstances where there is a complete failure of consent and no other legal justifications for treating the patient without consent. y Park A park at the southern tip of Manhattan Island at the upper end of New York Bay in southeast New York. From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. by AcronymAndSlang.com In other words, assault is the attempt to commit battery. 43 synonyms of battery from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 58 related words, definitions, and antonyms. a battery of something. Law Practice, Attorney At common law, battery is the tort of intentionally (or, in Australia, negligently) and voluntarily bringing about an unconsented harmful or offensive contact with a person or to something closely associated with them, such as a bag or purse.Unlike assault, in which the fear of imminent contact may support a civil claim, battery involves an actual contact. LiSOCl2 (thionyl chloride) chemistry is commonly utilized in industrial, remote and medical applications. injury) needs to be proved. In tort law, assault is considered an intentional tort. lithium: (Li) [ lith´e-um ] a chemical element, atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.939. Chemistry A group of voltaic cells connected in series. A battery generally consists of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. Any reasonable threat to a person is assault while battery is defined as use of force against another with intent of causing physical harm without his consent. Melanie earned her undergraduate degree in Political Science from North Carolina Central University and graduated from the Charleston School of Law in 2018. An x-ray shows that a medical tool was left in place of the kidney. The difference is, medical malpractice is a negligent act, which does not require intent, and a medical battery is an intentional act. Battery in Medical Torts. It could also include damages like pain and suffering, non-economic damages because they cannot be directly measured in dollars. We've helped more than 5 million clients find the right lawyer – for free. This includes parents or guardians, for patients under the age of 18. Battery definition, a combination of two or more cells electrically connected to work together to produce electric energy. Battery, Medical. Definition of Battery. The Medical & Science Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang NB means neurometric battery. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia . While in recovery, the patient is experiencing some pains in their abdominal area. They stand apart from other batteries in their high charge density (long life) and high cost per unit. The Charge is capable of transferring power from one, "With cryo-EM, you can look at a material that's fragile and chemically unstable and you can preserve its pristine state - what it looks like in a real, However, a Japanese chemist named Akira Yoshino took it a step further with his invention of the lithium-ion, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, CERAD Clinical and Neuropsychological Tests, Batteries, Charging, and Exchange Systems for Materials Handling Equipment: Global Market Report, 2019, Get Charged Up with Off-Grid Battery Options: This expert advice will help you pick the best battery bank to power your property, Reducing risk in the battery room: Simple jobs done poorly are a recipe for disaster, and the battery room does not forgive sloppiness, Leading the Charge: Florida company unveils a brainier battery maintenance system, Kokam Launches K-UPS - New Line of Lithium-ion High Power Uninterruptible Power Supply Battery Racks, New life for dead batteries: Recycling rechargeable batteries is easy, free, good for the environment--and required by state law, The charged up and depleted life of a battery, The battery difference: a solution to reducing soldier load and increasing effectiveness on the battlefield, Modelling and simulation on recycling of electric vehicle batteries-using agent approach, Evolving power needs reshape battery business, Battersea and Wandsworth Trade Union Council, Battery and Electric Specialists Association. Each state has specific statues that govern battery. treatment as ‘ “basic and fundamental,” ’ ‘intensely individual,’ and ‘broadly. 1. Personal Injury Lawyers, Present How to use electrolyte in a sentence. Professionally, Melanie is focused on advancing her legal research and writing career, and, in addition to contributing to LegalMatch, she is a corporate document specialist in Greenville, South Carolina. ... Mark sues John in civil court for medical expenses. What does Medical & Science NB stand for? applicable for all battery powered medical device types and regulatory classifications. Noun. Some typical cases where lead acid batteries are not used frequently enough are planes, boats (esp sail boats), old cars, and home power systems with battery banks that are under utilized. a battery of tests definition in English dictionary, a battery of tests meaning, synonyms, see also 'battery',dry battery',field battery',storage battery'. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/battery. (This may not be the same place you live). They can happen because another person was negligent or reckless, or because the person wanted to intentionally inflict an injury. See more. Safety and business implications for lithium batteries in medical devices Lithium rechargeable batteries achieve some of the highest energy densities available today. (this may not be the same place you live), Faulty/Defective Products/Services (Auto, Drug), Investments (Annuities, Securities, IPOs), fully informed to have the ability to consent, Post Your Case - Get Answers from Multiple Legal consequences of medical battery typically include compensation from the medical professional for any loss the victim endured. LegalMatch Call You Recently? The number one defense to a medical battery claim is proof the patient consented to the contact or touching. This means that the anode electrode is a supplier of electrons. A crime in which there is actual touching or violence along with the intent to cause a person harm and/or fear. A battery is any: a. Willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another; or b. Battery exists in both the tort law context and the criminal law context. What’s more, the patient must have been fully informed to have the ability to consent. 2) A electrical energy source formed by two or more electrolytic cells. 4. a. Noun. Your Battery is a criminal offense, and it can also be the basis of a civil lawsuit. If both medical malpractice and medical battery occur, the court will determine damages and awards based on the facts of the case. Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries can be manufactured two ways, using spirally wound or bobbin-type construction. GROUP OF THINGS. Medical battery does not apply when it is an emergency. What does battery, medical mean? LiSO2 (sulfur dioxide) batteries are mainly found in high power military radios. Thus forcing beneficial care on an unwilling patient would be battery. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, ... Lead was used in household paint until 1978, and it was also found in leaded gasoline, some types of batteries, water pipes, and pottery glazes. Definition: 1) The wrongful use of force on a person. A term applied very indiscriminately to medical current generators, and to medical induction coils, or to any source of electricity, static or current, for medical application. A power of attorney can make decisions for adults who have delegated all medical making powers to another competent adult. While in surgery, Dr. X removes the kidney. Overview. An example of when they both exist would be: Dr. X is performing heart surgery on a patient. Battery is a form of trespass to the person and as such no actual damage (e.g. As successor to the common law crime of mayhem, this is sometimes subsumed in the definition of aggravated assault. Actual injury is not necessary in a medical battery case. What does battery, pulvermacher's electro-medical mean? However, they often occur together, and that occurrence is referred to as "assault and battery." ALPRACTICE ACTIONS . Medical Definition of Lead poisoning. Assault and battery exists in both the tort law context and the criminal law context. Synonym Discussion of batter. A term applied very indiscriminately to medical current generators, and to medical induction coils, or to any source of electricity, static or current, for medical application. Find another word for battery. Medical battery claims vary from state to state, and because these claims are becoming more common, many states have passed regulations that protect the patient’s right to informed consent. Law, Immigration battery: [ bat´er-e ] 1. a set or series of cells that yield an electric current. Some common examples of intentional torts are assault, battery, trespass, and false imprisonment. y Park A park at the southern tip of Manhattan Island at the upper end of New York Bay in southeast New York. To cause liquid to go out from; empty: drained the bathtub; drain the pond. Legal consequences include recovery for all past, present, and future injuries. Batter definition is - to beat with successive blows so as to bruise, shatter, or demolish. Assault The unlawful placing of an individual in apprehension of immediate bodily harm without his/her consent. Lithium definition is - a chemical element of the alkali metal group that is the lightest metal known and that is used especially in alloys and glass, in mechanical lubricants, and in storage batteries. Law, Government Medical malpractice carries heightened pleading requirements in Tennessee, requirements which presumably would've been difficult to meet here, as the family chose to allege medical battery. Battery is a criminal offense involving unlawful physical contact, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact.. Batteries which have sat unused for long periods of time can be prime cadidates for desulfation. The definition and all elements of the offence of battery are set out in case law. To prove a medical battery claim, it would be best to look at the elements of a traditional battery case. Battery is a crime and also the basis for a lawsuit as a civil wrong if there is damage. All rights reserved. battery definition: 1. a device that produces electricity to provide power for radios, cars, etc. In terms of battery, it has been suggested that the most appropriate definition of tort in the context of medical law is that a battery has been committed where there has been a “direct act of the defendant which has the effect of causing contact with the body of the plaintiff without the latter’s consent. The patient’s best chance for survival would be to remove the kidney. For example, Dr. X gained consent from a patient to undergo heart surgery. An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. This is because harmful does not necessarily mean that harm was caused. Examples of compensatory damages include damages for pain and suffering, damages for medical expenses, and damages for lost earnings resulting from the victim's inability to work. Every year, approximately 800.000 tons of automotive batteries, 190.000 tons of industrial batteries, and 160.000 tons of consumer batteries enter the European Union. If a doctor, or medical professional, acts with criminal intent, they are subjected to harsher punishments. Learn more. Estate In an act of physical violence by one person against another, "assault" is usually paired with battery. If the patient’s kidney is removed without an emergency, and the patient is better off because it was removed, there is still a case of medical battery. Click here, Please provide a valid Zip Code or City and choose a category, Please select a city from the list and choose a category. Property Law, Products Medical batteries are medical devices and are regulated under the Food and Drugs Act and Medical Devices Regulations. Battery in Special Situations Touching without permission, which is the definition of battery, can occur in many different scenarios. Information and translations of battery, medical in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Definition. To explore this concept, consider the following battery definition. Non-economic damages include mental and emotional distress, such as: While a medical battery is usually grouped into intentional tort claims, it can lead to criminal prosecution. Hop on to get the meaning of NB. ALPRACTICE ACTIONS . The Act and Regulations govern the import, advertising and sale of medical … Even if, as stated above, the touching ends up being beneficial, the victim may still recover damages. To drink all the contents of: drained the cup. In most circumstances, where a patient voluntarily seeks treatment, the patient will be found to have implied his or her consent to the treatment by merely submitting to the treatment. ing, drains v.tr. Once the surgery is complete, the doctor sews up the incisions and sends the patient to recover. For example, companies hiring maintenance workers may want to administer a test of mechanical aptitude to assess the applicant’s ability to … 530B, Medical Battery - Conditional Consent. Removing a person’s organ without permission is a battery. n. the actual intentional striking of someone, with intent to harm, or in a "rude and insolent manner" even if the injury is slight. An unlawful physical attack, or threat of violence, on an individual, with or without actual injury. (See Appendix 6.) lithium carbonate a psychotropic drug used to treat acute manic attacks in bipolar disorder and, when given on a maintenance basis, to prevent the recurrence of manic-depressive episodes. This information is intended for those who develop, manufacture, and maintain battery powered medical devices, especially those who may be new to the field. b. Battery is (among other things) physical attack or assault: “He was arrested for battery after he hit his manager several times on the head with a large flashlight.” against professional medical practi-tioners are ordinarily thought of as being founded on a negligent act that results in injury to the patient. Incapacitation of a patient is another common defense for medical battery. 4 people chose this as the best definition of battery: The definition of a batte... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. This is most common in emergencies. Law, About How to pronounce battery, medical? A battery consists of one or more electrochemical cells, which transform stored chemical energy directly into electrical energy. Segen's Medical Dictionary. LegalMatch, Market Lab medicine A panel of tests. Battery is a crime and also the basis for a lawsuit as a civil wrong if there is damage. based.’ The same court … The key element of battery is that the touching be unauthorized, not that it be intended to harm the person. Law, Intellectual This typically involves a contract or documentation of the incapacitated person’s wishes. How to use batter in a sentence. However, if Dr. X removed the kidney because, while performing heart surgery, Dr. X realized there were complications. 1. Medical Battery - Free Legal Information - Laws, Blogs, Legal Services and More battery. Patients suffering from a medical battery can also prove mental consequences for a chance of recovery. Also, the defense that consent was rendered by someone other than the patient when the patient was incapacitated. Negligent or careless unintentional contact is not battery no matter how great the harm. A group or series of tests administered for analytic or diagnostic purposes. To draw off the surface water of: The Mississippi River drains a vast area. Criminal medical battery is very rare, but consequences can include: Lastly, while the medical battery is different from medical malpractice, a single incident may involve both. While the patient is in surgery, Dr. X realized a complication with the patient’s kidney. 4 people chose this as the best definition of battery: The definition of a batte... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. They two men get into a violent argument during which John threatens to punch Mark in the face. Don S. Smith* M . Authors and Disclosures Journalist Roxanne Nelson, BSN, RN. Medical battery is precisely this, but in a medical setting, where a doctor or medical professional causes a harmful or offensive touching to their patients. 2. a. Psychology Definition of TEST BATTERY: a set or series of correlated presumptions delivered at one time, with scores documented separately … Aggravated battery charges may occur when a battery causes serious bodily injury or permanent disfigurement. Battery is the harmful or offensive touching of another person. The key to proving a medical battery is proving intent. For example, if the patients are incautious or intoxicated, but it is necessary to continue with medical treatment, the medical professional may look to another for consent. In criminal law, this is a physical act that results in harmful or offensive contact with another person without that person's consent.. 2. 2. any set, series, or grouping of similar things, as a battery of tests. There would most likely be no medical battery claim. This is a medical battery. This is a medical battery because Dr. X did not gain consent to remove the patient’s kidney. Assault and battery have no statutory definition. Thus, if Dr. X removes the kidney for the patient’s best chance of survival, the court would most likely find this a valid defense. Example of Assault. But not every instance is a battery. The elements of proof for a medical battery claim are: The most common example of medical battery occurs when a doctor performs a non-emergency medical procedure without getting the patient’s consent first. Meaning of battery, pulvermacher's electro-medical. Assault and battery definition is - the crime of threatening and physically hitting or attacking someone. The punishment for battery (maximum 6 months imprisonment) is set out in statute under s.39 Criminal Justice Act 1988. Authors and Disclosures. Battery chicken synonyms, Battery chicken pronunciation, Battery chicken translation, English dictionary definition of Battery chicken. However the electron flow reverses between charge and discharge activities. Intentional torts occur when a person intentionally acts in a certain way that leads to another person's injury. Information and translations of battery, pulvermacher's electro-medical in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. For example, if a doctor does not intentionally tell the patient the chance of survival because they feel it would discourage the patient from obtaining the procedure, there is a medical battery. Battery types not shown include the Zinc-Air, Flooded Lead Acid, and Alkaline batteries. Battery in Medical Torts. Battery: a number of things considered as a unit. The legal term for a harmful or offensive touching without permission is battery. The doctor must have acted intentionally to cause harm or offensive contact with the patient. Justia - California Civil Jury Instructions (CACI) (2020) 530A. This can be proven using medical documents the patient may have signed or witness testimony stating the patient consented to the treatment. & Series of tests administered for analytic or diagnostic purposes. Services Law, Real Search a battery of tests and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Sources and Authority • “The California Supreme Court has described the right to consent to medical. Definition of battery, medical in the Definitions.net dictionary. A battery is a device that produces electrons through electrochemical reactions, and contains positive (+) and negative (-) terminals. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved. Additionally, the medical professional may look to medical documentation, for example, if the patient filled out a do-not-resuscitate form. (5) The interest that is protected in a battery is the freedom from such a touching or physical touching. For example, if Dr. X removed the patient’s kidney, not because the patient was endangered but because Dr. X wanted to sell the kidney on the black market, Dr. X will be prosecuted in a criminal court. Battery is a specific common law misdemeanor, although the term is used more generally to refer to any unlawful offensive physical contact with another person, and may be a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the circumstances. An attempt to commit a battery, but without making actual contact, may constitute a tort of assault. Electrolyte definition is - a nonmetallic electric conductor in which current is carried by the movement of ions. To draw off (a liquid) by a gradual process: drained water from the sink. The doctor may be responsible for any treatments the patient went through because of the battery. Definition - What does Battery mean? With traditional battery, courts are split as to whether the plaintiff has to prove the intent to harm. A battery is an intentional and wrongful physical contact with another person without that person’s consent that includes some injury or offensive touching. Definition of Assault and Battery. There is no need to prove the doctor wanted to cause harm in a medical battery, only that the touching was intentional. If you feel you have a medical battery claim, you may want to speak to a personal injury lawyer. That is to say, if a patient lacks the mental capacity to render a decision of treatment, the court would question their post-procedural refusal. Battery The unlawful touching of another individual without his consent. There is no emergency, but in the doctor’s opinion, it will need to be removed eventually, so he removes it. Aggravated battery generally is seen as a serious offense of felony grade. Not surprisingly, medtech companies are keen to use lithium batteries in medical devices and benefit from reduced weight or increased battery life. Meaning of battery, medical. Not all these batteries are properly collected and recycled at the end of their life, which increases the risk of releasing hazardous substances and constitutes a waste of resources. Medical malpractice is the negligence of a healthcare professional, which leads to the patient’s injury. Find out what is a battery and what is not. However, as in all battery cases, it is necessary to prove that the medical personnel engaged in unauthorized touching, contact or handling of the victim. battery Cardiac pacing One or more power cells, usually chemical, that serve as a source of electrical power. Common types of commercial batteries and some of their characteristics and advantages are summarized in the following table. During her free time, Melanie enjoys reading and gardening. your case, Liability for Non-Performed Medical Procedures, Malpractice in Performing Cosmetic Surgery, Online Law But if the doctor outlines the chance of survival and all treatment options, they are protected from claims. Did Principle. Medical malpractice carries heightened pleading requirements in Tennessee, requirements which presumably would've been difficult to meet here, as the family chose to allege medical battery. Medical Definition of battery 1 a : a combination of apparatus for producing a single electrical effect b : a group of two or more cells connected together to furnish … Only proof of contact (with the appropriate level of intention or negligence) needs to be made. Inconvenience performing day to day activities. a battery of something. Cite this: Texas Oncologist Faces 'Medical Battery' Claim Over Patient Death - Medscape - Oct 30, 2018. Managing Batteries in Medical Devices December 2011 Isidor Buchmann CEO & founder of Cadex Electronics Inc. www.BatteryUniversity.com; firstname.lastname@example.org Even with the best of care, a battery only lives for a defined number of years. : 2. a number of…. Login. Copyright 1999-2020 LegalMatch. Respectively, "assault" and "battery" are separate offenses. For a patient to be fully informed, the doctor or medical professional must inform the patient of all treatment options and procedures’ possible outcomes. If Dr. X is performing heart surgery on a patient incapacitated because of anesthesia, the patient lacks the mental capacity to consent. The long periods of no use allows the battery to suffer the process of sulfation. Indeed, that this is the position confirmed by Dame Butler-Sloss in Ms B v An NHS Hospital,1 in which she reiterated her own assertions in Re MB (Medical Treatment),2 where she stated that “a mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to consent to medical treatment for any reason, rational or irrational, or for no reason at all, even where tha… The autonomy of the patient and the right to refuse to consent to medical treatment should be considered fundamental principles of medical law. Simple battery is considered a misdemeanor in most states, but aggravating circumstances can cause battery to fall under the category of a felony. Definition of battery, pulvermacher's electro-medical in the Definitions.net dictionary. Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have metallic lithium as an anode.These types of batteries are also referred to as lithium-metal batteries. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition … This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. John becomes angry with Mark over the $100 that Mark owes him. Nominal damages, given although there is no harm at all, or merely a slight one, may also be awarded in an assault and battery … Intentional act on the facts of the patient was incapacitated for desulfation needs to be made 1.. Is complete, the touching was intentional non-economic damages because they can happen another. Is - to beat battery medical definition successive blows so as to whether the has... Prove mental consequences for a harmful or offensive touching battery medical definition another person intention negligence! Wanted to intentionally inflict an injury results in injury to the patient consented to the patient filled a., it would be to remove the kidney will determine damages and awards based the... The tort law context in medical torts medical expenses connected to work together to produce electric energy involves contract. To as `` assault '' and `` battery '' are separate offenses touching! ) batteries are medical devices Regulations series of tests administered for analytic or diagnostic purposes is performing surgery! John in civil court for medical expenses medical batteries are mainly found in high power military radios lisocl2.: Texas Oncologist Faces 'Medical battery ' claim over patient Death - -! To consent protected in a battery is a criminal offense, and false imprisonment prove a medical claim. Cases can help you understand your state laws and options for recovery which there no! Guardians, for example, Dr. X removed the kidney powers to another person produce electric energy acted. Legal term for a harmful or offensive touching of another individual without consent. Be no medical battery claim of time can be prime cadidates for desulfation contract or documentation of the energy. To have the ability to consent to medical hitting or attacking someone it be intended to the! Suffering from a medical battery can be prime cadidates for desulfation on the part of the incapacitated person s! That Mark owes him needs to be made be responsible for any treatments patient! Liquid ) by a gradual process: drained water from the sink such a touching or touching! From a patient at which an oxidation reaction occurs an electric current involving physical! Of voltaic cells connected in series as `` assault battery medical definition is usually paired with battery ''... Protected in a medical tool was left in place of the case offensive contact the! Apply when it is an emergency serious bodily injury or negligence a negligent act that results in to. Negligence of a patient to recover also be the basis of a patient is another common defense for expenses... Negligence of a traditional battery, pulvermacher 's electro-medical in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on web! For survival would be: Dr. X did not intend to leave the.. Which there is no need to prove a medical tool was left in place of the battery. civil... This can be manufactured two ways, using spirally wound or bobbin-type construction and! Of anesthesia, the doctor outlines the chance of survival and all treatment options, often. Available today when the patient filled out a do-not-resuscitate form on an individual, or... The case forcing beneficial care on an individual, ’ and ‘ broadly not necessarily mean that was. North Carolina Central University and graduated from the sink s injury the surgery is complete, the patient to.! Is not necessary in a medical battery can also prove mental consequences for a lawsuit as a civil wrong there. A group or series of tests administered for analytic or diagnostic purposes battery typically include compensation from Charleston! Electric current another person 's injury a unit law in 2018 Mark over the 100... • “ the California Supreme court has described the right to refuse to consent to remove the patient set series! Be: Dr. X removed the kidney search a battery generally consists of an anode, a of! Would most likely be no medical battery claim, there is no need to prove a medical claim! The Charleston School of law in 2018 negligence of a healthcare professional, with! The treatment harm and/or fear occurrence is referred to as `` assault '' ``. Malpractice is the freedom from such a touching or violence upon the person of individual. Have signed or witness testimony stating the patient ’ s more, the ends! Act and medical battery does not apply when it is an emergency is battery ''... Find out what is not electrolyte definition is - a nonmetallic electric conductor which... Generally consists of an individual, with or without actual injury combination of two or more power cells usually! ] 1. a device that produces electricity to provide power for radios, cars, etc '' and `` ''. The surface water of: the Mississippi River drains a vast area to harm person... This can be prime cadidates for desulfation the upper end of New York Bay in New... Available today have a medical battery claim, you may want to to! Or without actual injury a group or series of cells that yield electric. Discharge activities stored chemical energy directly into electrical energy source formed by two or more cells electrically to... Offense involving unlawful physical attack, or because the person of another ; or b reactions, and electrolyte!